From coffee grounds to grand designs – talking about coffee shops and the circular economy at the RGS conference

Royal Geographical Society entranceIn London this week the Royal Geographical Society hosted its Annual Conference with an overarching theme of Geographies of trouble / geographies of hope. This year I presented some of my research in a session on Sustainablity, re-use and waste. The session encompassed a range of perspectives on the geographies of sustainability including research on topics from coffee, to plastic in Nepal, plastics and small island developing states to sanitation in India. While many of these presentations highlighted a series of problems around waste production, there was also glimmers of hope for how behaviours can change amongst a range of stakeholders to create a more sustainable future.

In the 15 minutes I had for the talk I tried to provide an overview of my current research project ‘From the Grounds up: exploring the coffee shop and the circular economy’ as well as some of the preliminary findings.

I’ve written on this blog before about some of the activities of the coffee shop industry and the circular economy, and some of these points were covered in the talk. After highlighting some more general ideas about the circular economy and where existing research has focused on this topic and the coffee shop industry I moved on to try and highlight some of the interesting activities taking place based on research focusing on the UK and Germany. Some examples included:

  • Cups made from coffee shop industry related waste – I had with me my Huskee cup, a reusable cup made from coffee husks, and I also talked about the Kaffeeform cups, made with recycled coffee grounds made by a company in Berlin.
  • I talked a little about new products made from recycled coffee cups, and the importance of waste management companies in transforming this form of waste. Coffee Notes are a type of notebook made from recycled disposable coffee cups. Coffee Notes is currently has a Kickstarter campaign to try and raise funds.
  • There are increasing numbers of organisations trying to do innovative things with coffee grounds. One of the most successful in the UK has been the coffee grounds recycling schemes established by Bio-bean which turns the coffee grounds into a range of biofuels. I was pleased to see when walking to one of the conference buildings one of Imperial’s coffee shops takes uses Green Cup Roasters and Recyclers which not only provide roasted coffee but services and processes to deal with the used coffe grounds afterwards.

I talked a little about some of the barriers and enablers for greater engagement in the circular economy for the coffee shop industry as perceived by businesses and consumers. This research is trying to explore some of these in more depth to begin to understand how greater engagement in the circular economy might be fostered, and the implications of this.

I’ve recently published a Centre for Business in Society White Paper on the coffee shop industry and the circular economy which covers some of the points in this presentation, and once fieldwork and analysis has been completed for this research a project summary will be made available – as well as a series of journal articles in the longer term future.

After hearing the talk several people came to talk to me with interesting things they had seen people doing related to coffee and the circular economy. I’m always interested in hearing about these, so if you know something that’s taking place with coffee and the circular economy from innovative designs to abstract uses for used coffee grounds, please do get in touch!

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Centre for Business in Society White Paper: Seeking Sustainability in the Coffee Shop Industry: Innovations in the Circular Economy

Across many sectors and industries, efforts are being made to be more sustainable, reduce consumption of materials and energy, and in many cases engage in more circular economy practices – reusing materials to create new ones, in turn reducing the need for new resources. The coffee shop industry is no exception to this, there are lots of examples of how individuals and organisations involved in the coffee shop industry are trying to do this too from using recycled material to produce coffee cups, to the use of coffee grounds in the production of energy.

As part of our research around the coffee shop industry and sustainability we have produced a White Paper that explores innovations in coffee and the circular economy. It considers the circular economy concept and how this has been adopted by some people and organisations in activities related to the coffee shop industry.

This includes a discussion around coffee cups, but also innovations around coffee grounds to produce new products, and the production of energy. It is designed to act a starting point for further research and discussion around the opportunities for different stakeholders in the coffee shop industry to engage with the circular economy.

It is available to download here:

This paper forms part of a White Paper series produced by my research centre, the Centre for Business in Society at Coventry University. There are White Papers available (and more soon to be available), related to each of the research clusters from the future of the high street, the importance of remanufacturing, to disruption and strategy in the automotive sector.

There will be more research published around the coffee shop industry and the circular economy once I’ve completed fieldwork for a current research project exploring these issues further in the UK and Germany.

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Summer sun, coffee shops and specialty coffee roasters in Porto

Portugal is a country with a long coffee history and rich coffee culture. Over the last few years I’ve been exploring the story of Portuguese coffee culture and the rise of specialty coffee in the country, particularly around the Porto area. Traditional Portuguese coffee shops remain key important spaces in communities across Portugal, and I still very much enjoy visiting these types of coffee shops not only for the views into Portuguese life, but also for the breads, croissants and doughnuts – if you’re in Portugual I really recommend the brioche type croissants and the bola de Berlim (a type of doughnut).

Porto Portugal

This summer I returned to Portugal visiting a few familiar places, as well as trying some new ones. In the past I’ve written about how some of the international coffee shop chains had begun to develop a presence in Portugal, particularly Costa Coffee being one of the first things you see when you come out of arrivals at Porto airport. This time I noticed two branches of Starbucks had appeared, both in central Porto, both busy with tourists.

Back in 2017 I went to meet Diogo Amorim, founder of Luso Coffee Roasters, one of the few specialty coffee roasters in the country, based not too far outside of Porto.  While in Portugal I received an email from the company to explain they had undergone some rebranding to reflect some changes in their activities. Luso Coffee Roasters has now become Senzu Coffee Roasters and the roaster was now located in the centre of Porto at the back of the specialty coffee shop Bird of Passage.

Bird of Passage Coffee Shop Porto

I didn’t get a chance to visit Bird of Passage on my last visit so this was one of my first stops while in Porto. A very light space, with plenty of seating towards the back. Serving Senzu coffee, we tried two V60s. With an open patio at the back right outside the roaster, it’s a quite space in the heart of the city.

There is clearly a developing interest in specialty coffee in Portugal, evidenced not only by the growth in shops and roasters, the increasing frequency of coffee competitions and events, but also indicated by the emergence of abcoffee, Porto’s first SCA approved coffee school. Abcoffee provides a range of courses and workshops on different areas of coffee led by Diogo from Senzu Coffee Roasters and Hugo Ferraz, head barista at Chá das Cinco another specialty coffee (and tea) shop in Porto.

On another trip into the city we went to Mesa325, one of the first specialty coffee shops I visited in Portugal a few years ago. Returning this year, the coffee was excellent as ever – a V60 of a coffee roasted by Senzu Coffee Roaster. They even their own roasted coffee branded for Mesa325 (roasted by Senzu). It was here that I finally got a chance to use a Kaffeeform cup. I became aware of the Kaffeeform cups through my project on coffee shops and sustainability – these are cups created with reused coffee grounds. This was the first coffee shop I’ve seen using these as one of their standard cups.

Last year I discovered a new favourite coffee shop and roaster in Gaia, just underneath the famous Porto bridge – 7g roaster. Just off one of the main tourist streets, this coffee shop has made great use of space. The roaster is really the centre piece to the coffee shop, with all the roasting activities on view. There’s also some outdoor seating and table service should you want it. 7g is part of a business that also has a series of tourist apartments so it’s not a surprise to find the place is often a mix of languages and cultures, but it’s already clearly very popular with most tables full minutes after opening. Interesting to see a few more Portuguese visitor this year. We tried a few coffees over a couple of visits during our time in Portugal, espresso, V60, a cortado and some batch brew, all of which were excellent. They had quite a range of coffees with different origins, processing methods and tasting notes, something I continue to try and learn about.

Last year we only made  a really brief stop to Fabrica Coffee Roasters, so this time we went back with a bit more time to take in the surroundings. There was a roaster on view towards the back of the shop – I don’t remember it being there last year, but it was such a quick visit I’m not sure I would have noticed. Again they had a good selection of coffees on offer, we chose to try a couple of different coffees as V60. In addition to the coffee they have a range of freshly prepared food too, with lots of great smells wafting past of plate of food went past to other customers – if I hadn’t had just had lunch I would have ordered some too!

On another day, we also made a quick trip back to Combi Coffee. It’s just outside the very centre of the city, a few minutes walk but clearly close to a lot of tourist accommodation. Like some of the other specialty coffee shops in Porto there roaster is on view at the back of the shop, and while I was there several people went over to look. They are clearly points of interest for people who are visiting.

Something that I’ve felt in all these specialty coffee shops in Portugal, is that they have a very welcoming atmosphere. The presence of specialty coffee in Portugal is more recent phenomenon compared to some other European countries, and the places I’ve been to are trying making this type of coffee accessible, with lots of information about it, if you want it. In most places where we showed an interest in the coffee or roaster, staff were very keen to give lots of details about the coffee the tasting notes and the brewing methods on offer. If you get talking with baristas and other staff in the coffee shops it becomes clear that most of the baristas and roasters know each other (as is the case in many coffee communities), but with many of them taking a collaborative approach. This was demonstrated recently when two roasters from Porto, Vernazza and Senzu teamed up to produce a coffee roasted together – with a coffee tasting held at Abcoffee coffee school. It’s clear that people in the coffee industry in this region recognise that to grow the visibility and popularity of specialty coffee it is important at times to work together.

As always, I look forward to future visits to Portugal to see how the coffee culture is developing, and to find new cafes and developments in the coffee shop industry.

If you’re interested in coffee culture in Portugal you may be interested in the previous blog posts on this topic:

 

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Costa Coffee, Coca-cola and the quest for global expansion – India and the Middle East

In 2018 it was announced that the global soft drinks company Coca-cola was going to buy the UK based coffee shop chain Costa Coffee, owned at the time by Whitbread, for nearly £4 billion. This was not the first big money deal to move into the coffee market by companies outside of the coffee industry, with the global investment JAB Holdings making a series of acquisitions including the specialty coffee companies Stumptown and Intelligentsia in the USA. Recognising a growing demand for coffee, and the popularity of coffee shops as a point of consumption many companies not wholly focused on coffee are seeking to expand their presence in this market, and in different global regions.

One country which has been experiencing fast coffee shop growth, is India with forecasts suggesting that the number of coffee shops is set to grow to 6,200 by 2020. One of the most successful coffee shop chains in India is Café Coffee Day, with estimates suggesting it had around 46% of the coffee chain market in 2015 and over 1,700 coffee shops in over 200 cities across the country by 2018. With positive growth prospects it’s not surprising to hear the other companies are trying to move into the market.

According to the Economic Times of India there are rumours that Coca-Cola are entering into talks to try and acquire a significant stake in Café Coffee day, although there has been no official confirmation. The move isn’t surprising given Asia and the Middle East are seen as key markets for expansion for coffee chains, given there is such saturation of the market in Europe and the USA.

Costa Coffee Riga 2Another region in the world that is experiencing strong growth in coffee shops, is the Middle East. Costa Coffee entered the Middle East region in 1999, but now has over 40 stores across 9 countries according to Allegra Strategies. Last year Allegra identified a series of growth dynamics for the region: the importance of convenient location for coffee shops; growth in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait the importance of localisation of coffee shops alongside the increased demand for specialty coffee. It appears these points were accurate as it has been announced that there has been an expansion of an existing partnership in the region between Costa Coffee and Alghanim Industries (established 2013) to open branches in Saudia Arabia, Oman and Qatar, with alterations to the Costa coffee menu to reflect local tastes.

In terms of future dynamics for the industry, saturation of the market in established regions is likely to continue to push companies to seek to expand in other regions, with the Middle East and Asia being at the forefront of expansion plans at present. It will be interesting to see if the global chains and brands are as successful in these regions as they have been elsewhere, or if different dynamics take place which mean the coffee shop industry takes on different characteristics.    

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Innovations in the circular economy: coffee grounds as a waste opportunity

In the UK around 95 million cups of coffee are consumed every day, which means it also produces a lot of coffee waste – around of 500,000 tonnes waste coffee grounds every year. Such amount of waste contributes to rising pressures on landfill, and decomposition of coffee grounds will ultimately contribute to greenhouse gas emissions.

Such volumes of waste however presents potential innovators with a huge resource base to work with, and one which many people have been trying engage with. The BBC recently reported on how two entrepreneurs in Scotland have developed a method to extract oil from coffee grounds which could be used in a wide range of products, and could even be used as an alternative to palm oil (Black, 2019). Palm oil has become an ingredient in so many products, around 50% of packaged products in the supermarkets according to the WWF (2018), but one which has also been linked to driving deforestation which has a range of damaging environmental consequences. Finding an alternative from coffee grounds is an attractive prospect if it can be scaled up and can become a viable alternative to palm oil. The two entrepreneurs Mr Kennedy and Mr Moore established Revive Eco to try and work towards this. They are contenders in a Chivas Venture competition, a global competition for social entrepreneurs to try and secure funds to continue to develop the process and develop an industrial coffee ground processing plant. According to the Chivas Venture profile Revive Eco have ‘diverted 20 tonnes of coffee ground away from landfill, saving approximately 36 tonnes of CO2’ (Chivas, 2019). Through engaging in the circular economy, using coffee waste the potential for reducing waste from the coffee shop industry and reducing CO2 emissions is vast.

They are not however first, or the only organisation which has seen the rising amount of coffee grounds as an opportunity. bio-bean, are another UK based clean technology company that collects coffee grounds and recycles them on an industrial scale to produce a range of biofuels and biochemicals. If you look in your local DIY store you may see their ‘coffee logs’ for sale, an alternative to traditional logs. Bio-bean has successfully grown from a small start-up in 2013 based in London to become a successful waste management and recycling organisation that operates nationwide. bio-bean’s life cycle assessment suggested that ‘sending waste coffee grounds to bio-bean produces 80% less Co2 emissions than sending them to landfill’ (bio-bean, 2018), again highlighting the environmental potential for this process. The proliferation of coffee waste is also evident from the types of places that bio-bean collect their waste coffee grounds, from independent cafes to instant coffee factories, highlighting that there are a range of business and organisations that can get involved in this process.

These are not the only innovators who have utilised coffee waste as a resource, there are many examples at a range of scales from GroCycle, a social enterprise who use coffee grounds as a base for growing mushrooms, to Rosalie McMillan (2014) a jewellery designer who uses a unique material made from recycled coffee grounds.  Each views coffee waste as an opportunity, to reuse and recycle and existing product, in turn contributing to the circular economy.  Given the size, global nature and growth trajectories of the coffee and coffee shop industries, the potential for using coffee waste is huge and one which needs further exploration. At Coventry University, I’m working on a research project, ‘From the Grounds Up: The Coffee Shop Industry and the Circular Economy’ to begin to explore this area, with a particular focus on activities in the UK and Germany.

References

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The Cup Fund has launched – seeking new ideas for coffee cup recycling

Disposable coffee cups have recently been in the news again. This time it’s because of a new effort to try and increase coffee cup recycling – The Cup Fund –  a £1 million funding scheme to kick start some ideas about how to boost paper cup recycling in different areas. The fund launched by the environmental charity Hubbub and the global coffee shop chain Starbucks is designed to support organisations (such as local authorities, business improvement districts, or even shopping centres) to get a range of recycling programmes off the ground –  at least 10 with grants of between £50,000 – £100,000 available. According to the Cup Fund website these funds could be used towards: recycling infrastructure, collecting costs, communications materials and marketing support, and staff time to create, deliver and evaluate the campaign.

Since the issue about the number of disposable coffee cups was made visible to the wider public a couple of years ago, great efforts have been made to increase recycling facilities, collection points and to reduce the number of disposable coffee cups used in the first place. The Paper Cup Recovery & Recycling Group have already reported how the UK’s capacity for recycling disposable coffee cups has increased from 1:400 to 1:25 in two years with expectations for this to increase to 1:12 by the end of 2019. However, there’s still much more work to be done, and hopefully this scheme might kick start some more activity. One thing I think this scheme demonstrates well is the capacity for different organisations with an interest in this issue to work together, not only the global coffee shop chains and charities, but paper cup recyclers (who have endorsed the programme), and professional organisations such as the Chartered Institution of Wastes Management, and the Local Authority Recycling Advisory committee (who have representatives on the panel that will be judging the submissions for the Cup Fund).

The closing date for applications is Friday 24th May with announcements of the successful applications on Tuesday 9th July.

I am currently in the fieldwork phase for a research project on coffee shops and the circular economy, with the issue of disposable coffee cups being a key component. From a research perspective, this fund is well timed, and I look forward to seeing what  innovative suggestions can be devised.

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Revisiting ‘Cafe Nation: Exploring the growth of the UK cafe industry’ – journal article made free to read until 2020

cafe nation jennifer ferreira paper areaBack in March 2018 I found out that one of my articles ‘Cafe Nation: Exploring the growth of the UK cafe industry‘ in the journal Area had been identified as one of the most downloaded, and so was made free to read until January 2019. I was delighted to find out yesterday that for the second year running the article has been one of the most downloaded in the journal, and will now be made free to read until January 2020.

The paper received over 1,455 downloads in 2018, this compared to the average of 149 for the journal. As the map showing the location of these downloads shows, there’s quite a global spread of readers so far, particularly for a paper that was so UK focused.

Area map 2019 Cafe nation

If you have been one of the people that has downloaded the article already, thank you, and I hope you found it interesting. If you’re just stumbling upon this research and piece of writing now, then I hope you enjoy it, and that there is something in there relevant for your interests.

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Book Review – Coffee: A Global History by Jonathan Morris

Coffee a global history bookCoffee: A Global History written by Professor Jonathan Morris is part of Reaktion books ‘Edible Series’. As a geographer I have always been interested in how things shape the world, and these books provide a great insight into how particular items of food and drink have developed over time, in different places and how they have influenced, and been influenced by, different cultures – the clue is in the title really – a global history.

There is something about this series of books that for me are particularly appealing. Small-ish hardbacks with glossy pages and well-illustrated throughout, and the book on coffee is no exception to this. The book has six key chapters which explore the different stages of coffee’s history from some of the basics about coffee, to discussions of modern day coffee cultures.

The first main chapter ‘from seed to cup’ examines just that how we get coffee, and the different elements of the journey to making it from the different types, to processing, trading to roasting and even aspects of coffee and health. Chapter 2 is where we start to get more into coffees history beginning with some of the coffee origin myths that around Kaldi, the goatherd who supposedly notices the animals becoming more energetic after eating coffee berries. Moving through time and across the world the chapter, ‘the wine of Islam’ explores how the culture of coffee and coffee houses spread to different places, and how different coffee cultures started to develop, and where at times there was resistance to them. Chapter 3 ‘Colonial good’ moves on to the next stage of coffee history which was entwined with colonial histories, exploring the spread of coffee culture. Having visited the sites of some of the earliest coffee houses in the UK, it’s fascinating to read about how London’s coffee house culture started, and the fluctuations that took place in coffee culture since its introduction there. As with all the chapters in the book, the content moves from one place to another highlighting the global nature of coffee, not only as a commodity, in how plants were moved from one country to another, but how countries relationships have been an important component of influencing how the coffee industry spread, and how different parts of the world rose and fall in prominence over time.

Chapter 4 focuses on coffee as an ‘industrial product’ examining the role of the American civil war in developing coffee consumption habits, the early companies in the coffee’s industrial history, the role of Brazil in the coffee world, as well as other countries in the Americas. The chapter also considers how the household became a place for coffee consumption, and some of the early marketing efforts to encourage people to buy it. Chapter five explores coffee as a ‘global commodity’, the rise of coffee growing in Africa, as well as different coffee styles and forms in different countries across the globe. The chapter ends exploring the coffee crisis, the volatility in the price of coffee, and the impact in different areas. Chapter 6 then moves towards the modern era, ‘the specialty beverage’ examining how the growth of specialty coffee has taken place, and the growth of some of the more familiar coffee cultures we are familiar with today, from Starbucks to the third wave specialty coffee shop. There are also explorations of more modern focuses in the coffee industry around ethical coffee and coffee pods. Towards the end of the chapter Prof. Morris considers if how the specialty revolution is important for the future of coffee alongside other key important factors, most notably climate change.

Towards the end of the book there is also a short recipe section which is a nice concise introduction to some of the different ways you might want to try and make coffee, the brew ratio suggestion table is an easy way to see how the brew methods can differ. A short glossary is helpful to understand the modern day coffee shop menu, and there is even a recipe for coffee cake as well as other coffee-based recipes.

This is an excellent book for people who know a little, or a lot about coffee. The book takes you on a global journey of how coffee and coffee culture has developed, highlighting people, places and events that have shaped the industry into what it is today. I’ve learnt a lot from this book, and it’s help me place things I knew a little about into a more coherent timeline of events, and more details about things I had perhaps seen mentioned briefly elsewhere, as well as lots of new information too. The sections in this book are short, but detailed and engaging, and as I mentioned earlier in the review, well illustrated, bringing some of the topics in the book to life.

Reading this book has not only enriched my knowledge about coffee, but reminded me that these books are a great way to learn about different cultures, histories and places through different foods and drinks  – I will have to return to some of the Edible Series in my wish list.

If you think you might be interested in this book, then it’s also worth listening to the Coffee Podcast episode where Prof Morris discusses some common coffee myths around the origin of coffee and some particular drinks.

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Book Review – Coffee: From Bean to Barista by Robert Thurston

I had a bit of time over the holidays to catch up on some of the latest coffee related books. I’d actually forgotten I’d pre-ordered this one so it was a nice surprise just before Christmas. I learnt about the work of Robert Thurston through the book ‘Coffee: A Comprehensive guide to the bean’ that he edited along with Jonathan Morris (who also has a new book out which I’m currently reading – Coffee: A Global History). Someone asked me recently if there was anything new to read about coffee, and wasn’t it just the same old thing repackaged? While some of the guides to coffee brewing and coffee shop locations might be somewhat repetitive, this is not the case with this book. Devoted to coffee the book explores the history, cultivation and culture of coffee. It’s divided into five chapters, with three key chapters focusing on producing countries, roasting coffee and making coffee, as well as coffee and health.

Coffee From Bean to BaristaChapter 2 explores the journey coffee takes in producing countries from the farms it is grown on to the ports where it departs. This includes information about the coffee plant, where it grows, issues with growing coffee and coffee certifications. The chapter then moves on to sections discussing women in coffee as well as the different ways coffee is harvested and processed. A particularly interesting section of this chapter explores the coffee prices across the supply chain using the authors’ experiences in his own roastery. Whenever I discuss this issue with students they are always surprised at how little farmers earn, but also given so many parts to the supply chain and number of people involved, that coffee isn’t more expensive. As Professor Thurston points out ‘for the most part, no one is making big profit in the commodity chain, although millions of sales – especially of coffee heavily charged with milk, as in lattes and cappuccinos – can result in billions in net revenue for a company like Starbucks’. (p.56). The chapter ends by highlighting how climate change may affect the coffee industry, as well as considering the future of coffee arguing ‘the best path towards greater social justice in the coffee industry is to get more people to drink more and better coffee’(p.66).

Chapter three explores coffee roasting and coffee consumption and some of its key developments. There’s a nice and simplified version of the coffee tasting wheel that highlights some of the basic flavour notes that can tasted from coffee, which accompanies a discussion of specialty coffee, and what that means. There are some great sections on coffee consumption around the world which explores not only consumption rates, but how coffee drinking habits spread around the globe. The chapter then moves on to document developments in roasting coffee, and an explanation of the roasting process before outlining some different ways to prepare coffee with an important point: ‘There is no need to get a lot of fancy equipment to make good coffee at home’ (p.116).

Chapter four focuses on different aspects of coffee and health. This begins with a little history to views on coffee and health, and how approaches to coffee and coffee houses has shifted over time. There is a detailed section on a key chemical in coffee, caffeine, as well as a section on recent research on coffee and health. The book concludes by returning to a number of key issues facing the coffee industry around climate change and sustainability of the coffee industry, highlighting how it is important for more money to reach the farmers end of the supply chain.

The book is written in a very engaging style, with a feel like the author is talking to the reader, sometimes with details about the author’s experiences, or tips for the reader to help them enjoy their coffee. There’s a helpful glossary at the end too for some of the key terms and acronyms used throughout the book. A welcome addition to my ‘coffee library’.

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New publication: From bean to cup and beyond: exploring ethical consumption and coffee shops

To finish off the year on the café spaces blog, a new article drawing on our research around the coffee shop industry and ethical consumption has been published in the Journal of Consumer Ethics. As part of a special issue on Food and Ethical Consumption, the article ‘From Bean to cup and beyond: exploring ethical consumption and coffee shop’, written with my co-author Dr Carlos Ferreira explores some of the issues relation to ethical consumption for the coffee shop industry.

https://journal.ethicalconsumer.org/The paper illuminates some of the complexities consumers face around ethical consumption in coffee shops focusing on three areas in particular: the business model of coffee shop chosen; the ethical qualities of coffee consumed; and what happens to the waste produced.

It begins by exploring the growth of the coffee shop industry and the implications this has for increased consumption of products and energy. After examining some of the literature related to ethical consumption and coffee shops the article presents a model to illustrate some of the coffee shop choices consumers face and where ethical consumption choices can be made. The article highlights how there are many components which can contribute to ethical consumption in coffee shops. The choice of coffee shop presents consumers with an ethical choice, as well as the coffee consumed in these places, although the article highlights there is some confusion among consumers about what constitutes ‘ethical’ coffee. The article then moves on to consider how ethical consumption choices can be made regarding waste produced, in particular around the issue of disposable coffee cups. In doing so it highlights how there are a range of stakeholders than can play a part in fostering more ethical consumption choices.

The Journal of Consumer Ethics is an open access interdisciplinary academic journal for research into ethical consumption, and the article along with the others in the special issue are free to download.

 

 

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