The London Coffee Festival 2018: Highlights

From 12th-15th April, the Old Truman Brewery in Shoreditch hosts the London Coffee Festival. I had originally expected not to attend this year due to our new arrival, but in a last minute change of plans decided to go with my other little research assistant.

I was particularly interested in seeing how the festival addressed issues of sustainability this year, in the hope of finding some more innovative ideas, strategies and products that might contribute to my most recent research project. Aside from the research I was excited to get to meet lots of people from coffee related businesses that I have either been in touch with, or have been reading about. The festival seemed bigger than ever, spread over four floors with more exhibits and stalls than I could ever possibly hope to visit in one day.

Now I can drink coffee again I was excited to acquire some more beans for the household, and in particular I’ve wanted to try Redemption Roasters  (a social enterprise based in Aylesbury prison designed to provide young offenders with skills in the coffee industry), and Girls Who Grind Coffee  (an all-female coffee roasting company seeking to give a voice to women in the coffee industry) so I headed to these first.

 

As you’d expect at a coffee festival there is copious amount of coffee on offer – you have to learn to pace yourself. One year I made the mistake of visiting a couple of coffee shops before the festival (for research purposes of course), but this meant I was already quite caffeinated by the time I got there. I have learnt my lesson! That said, I did still get to try quite a few different coffees, and now have a long list of roasters that I will be ordering from over the coming months. In addition to lots of great roasters from around the UK such as Neighbourhood Coffee, Outpost Coffee Roasters, Square Mile and Union  I also got to try some international roasters – two of the favourites were Koppi (Sweden)  and Five Elephant (Germany). I should have bought some coffee from these roasters while I was there, but got distracted and forgot!

In addition to the floors full of exhibitors there is a fully packed programme of events from coffee tastings, latte art demonstrations and panel discussions to coffee competitions. It’s easy to see why the festival has to run for several days. These festivals really are a great opportunity to get to meet some of the people who make the coffee industry what it is today, whether this is a coffee business owner, roaster or barista. In addition to get to see all the new and exciting coffee related offerings, the festival is also a chance to try all sorts of other things too – lots of different specialty food and beverage companies. My research assistant was a particular fan of the Lotus Biscoff and Cakesmiths stands where were given some samples.

As I mentioned before one of the main things I was exploring at the festival was businesses with products and innovations related to sustainability. It was good to see that the festival provided very visible recycling points for coffee cups around the festival (supported by Simply Cups and Seda International) but also there was a wide range of reusable coffee cup companies present and companies with a focus on more sustainable packaging.

KeepCup had a very bright and colourful stand as usual, I resisted from buying another KeepCup.

Showcasing their efforts in the circular economy, the rCUP demonstrated their cups made from discarded paper coffee cups. They marketing material suggests they are 100% leak proof which might make these particularly attractive to consumers – some reusable cups I’ve been experimenting with are definitely not leak proof.

Ecoffee Cup returned to the festival again with their wide range of very colourful cups made from natural bamboo fibre – I picked up one of these last year!

I also got a chance to chat with the team from Huskup which has cups made from natural risk husks, making these cups plastic free.  These were nice and light, and decided to acquire one of these to try.

There were several other companies with reusable cup options on offer too including Sol Cups and Therma Cup. The London Coffee Festival shop itself was selling branded Sol Cups and since I didn’t yet have a glass reusable coffee cup decided to get one of these too.

Many of the coffee roasters around the festival had their own branded reusable cups, and it was encouraging to see lots of these being sold and used at the festival.

More generally there were packaging companies such as London Bio Packaging who were keen to talk about their efforts in producing sustainable packaging. They have an extensive catalogue of products in two key ranges the Sustain range (renewable and compostable) and the Revive range (recycled and recyclable). Simply Cups the collection and recycling service also had an exhibit too.

There was even a panel discussion in ‘The Lab’ about Paper Cup recycling and the circular economy the Paper Cup Alliance, Seda UK and Simply Cups.

Overall, it felt like there was a greater awareness of the need for sustainability in the coffee shop industry particular related to coffee cups and packaging, from the festival organisers themselves , but also from the range of related business that were exhibiting there. As always I fully enjoyed my trip to the London Coffee Festival, meeting relevant industry contacts and making some new valuable connections, discovering new coffees and related products and experiencing lots of what the coffee industry has to offer.

 

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Why coffee festivals are good for cities, consumers and the coffee industry

It’s that time of year again when thousands of coffee professionals and coffee lovers are drawn to London for the annual London Coffee Festival, which is once again held in the Old Truman Brewery on Brick Lane. The festival first emerged in 2011 and has grown each year in terms of the amount of businesses present, the variety of a businesses, events and activities, as well as the number of visitors (estimated to be around 30,000), to become one of the leading coffee festivals in Europe.

I wrote a blog post a couple of years ago about why coffee festivals can be good for cities in terms of attracting people to visit them (and in particular different areas of a city), which can have a positive impact on the businesses in the surrounding area.  This continues to be the case with rising visitor numbers to coffee festivals, and in the case of the UK a growing number of popular coffee festivals that have arisen across the country. Each of these coffee festivals has a different feel in terms of the location of the event, size, durations and the activities that take place there. While the London Coffee Festival remains one of the largest, others are becoming more popular each year.

  • Cup North, the Manchester Coffee Festival, held in the Victoria Warehouse (next date 3rd & 4th November).
  • Glasgow Coffee Festival held at the Briggait (next date 19th and 20th May, 2018).
  • Edinburgh Coffee Festival, held in the Corn Exchange (next date 6th October, 2018).
  • 2017 witnessed the first Birmingham Coffee Festival which returns to the Custard Factory in 2018 (next date 8-10th June, 2018). I’ve just got my tickets for this one!

There are also a range of coffee festivals growing in popularity across the globe too from Amsterdam, New York to Prague and Tokyo.

For people with an interest in coffee, coffee festivals offer an opportunity to discover new things about coffee, this might be a new roaster, piece of equipment, or method of brewing. While there is a large element of these festivals where consumers can purchase different coffee and related goods, they are increasingly about experiences too – from coffee cuppings, to lectures about coffee history and the coffee industry. The programme for the 2018 London Coffee Festival is pretty packed, with a wide range of events and experiences. Many of these coffee festivals have a competition element to them as well – the London Coffee Festival this year is home to the Coffee Masters Tournament which will see baristas demonstrate their skills across a range of areas, while the Glasgow Coffee Festival will host the UK Brewers cup.

And increasingly these festivals are more than just about coffee too, with many other related products such as tea, chocolate, craft beer, being represented too. I’ve always found the various different reusable coffee cups on offer interesting to explore, as part of my research to explore how the coffee shop industry engages in sustainability. One of my favourite stands at the London Coffee Festival is Cakesmiths, a company who provide cakes to coffee shops. I’m increasingly seeing the Cakesmiths logo in coffee shops across the country. I’m always impressed with the quality and variation of the cakes they offer – definitely worth a try if you see them!

For people working in the coffee industry these festivals offer a fantastic networking opportunity to meet others in the industry, to gauge what developments are taking place, and to promote their own activities. Then, of course, festivals provide a way for businesses to connect directly with consumers and raise their visibility in the market. I’ve always found people working in the coffee industry to be very friendly, and coffee festivals are a great way to meet some of the people who make the coffee industry possible, from baristas, roasters to importers and coffee brewing equipment manufacturers.

If you want to know more about what to expect from coffee festivals then there are some great coffee blogs that document the events.

  • Brian’s Coffee Spot recently provided a preview of the 2018 London Coffee Festival, but it’s worth looking through archives to see the past festivals he’s attended too.
  • Double Skinny Macchiato provides a good overview of activities at the London Coffee Festival from 2017, among others.
  • Bean There At blog covers not only the London Coffee Festiva, but also more recently the Amsterdam Coffee Festival for those who are intrigued about festivals further afield.

For more about Coffee Festivals across Europe it is worth checking the European Coffee Trip website which has an events page which not only lists the various festivals, but coffee competitions and other events too. With so many events taking place in the coffee industry there is the potential for cities to capitalise on the visitors to these events, for the different businesses and stakeholders in the coffee industry (and related industries) to raise awareness of their activities, and for consumers to be exposed to a greater range of coffee businesses, coffee knowledge and coffee experiences.

 

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Switching cups: Coffee festivals tackling disposable coffee cups

Coffee festivals have become important events in the coffee calendar for both professionals and coffee consumers alike. Growing numbers of visitors to these festivals across the country has inevitably led to large volumes of disposable coffee cups being used in very concentrated periods of time as people work their way around the festivals trying out different products.

Last year the London Coffee Festival made efforts to increase the number of disposable coffee cups that were recycled by taking part in the Square Mile Challenge with recycling points made very visible around the venue.

However, I discovered on twitter recently (via @CupforGood) an article from Sprudge which highlights how this year Glasgow Coffee Festival is placing greater emphasis on the  eco-responsibility by teaming up with the reusable coffee cup company KeepCup to lend visitors reusable cups.

Then in a further conversation on Twitter it was highlighted to me that in 2017 the Edinburgh Coffee Festival had become the first coffee festival in the UK to be ‘zero waste’ by partnering with Vegware (the eco-friendly food packaging company) and Frank Green (reusable cups).

These two Scottish coffee festivals are making great efforts to raise awareness of the sustainability issue related to coffee cup waste; it will be interesting to see if others follow their path. The London Coffee Festival is just around the corner, and with expected visitor numbers of around 30,000, if even a small proportion took their own reusable cup (or purchased one while they were there) it could have a big impact.

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Data insight: Specialty coffee shops in London

London is home to a wealth of specialty coffee shops, and it’s a place where the specialty coffee industry is always developing. In order for coffee shops to remain successful in such a market (or any market) and continue to grow it is important to understand the state of play and where business efforts might need to be channelled. Recently Francisco Ibáñez, Managing Director of Kilouett, has been exploring how specialty coffee shops operate in London in order for his company to help coffee shops work towards their efforts to attract new customers and to increase revenues, and connect consumers with excellent specialty coffee. Francisco has produced a report of his recent investigation which involved over 60 specialty coffee shops and over 300 consumers in London.

I have produced the infographic below to highlight some of the key findings from the report:

Londons specialty coffee shop infographic

The point about local events in coffee shops is something I have found too in my research. Furthermore, these events have been an important mechanism for developing different communities, not only around coffee, but other interests too. For a coffee shop to be successful a loyal consumer base is be very important and such events have been instrumental for many coffee shops in building this, and their brand.

The report provides much more detail about the activities of specialty coffee shops, as well as a whole section on consumer behaviours, which has not been addressed here. If you want to find out more about the report and its findings, you can contact Francisco Ibáñez via email fibanez@kilouett.com and www.kilouett.com (under development).

 

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‘Cafe Nation’ revisited

As a researcher in a university, part of my job is to write. One outlet for the pieces I write is the academic journal, although I do try to write for different audiences via various outlets. When academics write articles, we never really know how they are going to be recieved, let alone how many people will actually read what we have written.

I very much enjoyed writing the paper ‘Cafe Nation: exploring the growth of the UK cafe industry‘, and was delighted to recieve an email last week from Area, the journal it was published in, to say that the paper had been one of the ‘most accessed‘ papers for the journal in 2017.

The paper received over 1,700 downloads in 2017, compared to the average of 201. As the map showing the location of these downloads shows, there’s quite a  global spread of readers so far, particularly for a paper that was so UK focused.

Area paper downloads map

What was also great to find out is that the journal has made the paper (along with all the other ‘most accessed’ papers), free to download until January 2019. If you have been one of the people that has downloaded the article already, thank you, and I hope you found it interesting. If you’re just stumbling upon this research and piece of writing now, then I hope you enjoy it, and that there is something in there relevant for your interests.

 

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Book Review: Coffee: A Comprehensive Guide to the Bean, the Beverage, and the Industry.

Coffee: A Comprehensive Guide to the Bean, the Beverage, and the Industry.The second edition of Coffee: A Comprehensive Guide to the Bean, the Beverage and the Industry is a welcome addition to my ever-growing coffee related library. Edited by Robert Thurston, Jonathan Morris and Shawn Steiman, two history professors and the owner of Coffea Consulting, this volume also includes chapters from a wealth of different individuals involved in the coffee industry, from coffee farmers to coffee company owners.  63 chapters are divided into five parts: the coffee business, the state of the trade (which includes both producer and consumer country profiles), the history of coffee and its social life, the qualities of coffee (including coffee and the health), and the future of coffee. Each section has a selection of short chapters on related topics. It would be impossible in a review like this to cover the breadth and detail that is covered in this volume, however I will highlight a few of my favourite parts.

I found the consumer country profiles particularly interesting reading not only about the history of coffee consumption in different national markets, but how different coffee cultures developed – from the interest in sustainable coffee in Denmark, to how coffee faired in nations that are traditionally associated with tea (such as Russia or China). There is a rich history of coffee and the different elements of the coffee industry embedded throughout this book, but Chapter 41: Coffee, a Condensed History does a great job of providing a quick overview of how coffee became the global beverage it is today. As the authors highlight at the beginning of the chapter, ‘studying the history of coffee is a lot like barista training; the more you learn, the more you realise you don’t know. Coffee involves so many fields and subdisciplines- – agricultural, business, consumption, cultural, diplomatic, development, economic, environmental, food, gender, political, religious, rural, social, technology, trade’ – and in part this is what makes it such an interesting area to learn about. This book in general has highlighted areas of the industry I need to learn more about, and with each chapter well referenced, it means I have lot of further avenues for reading. I particularly enjoyed Chapter 42 Coffee House Formats throughout the centuries: Third places or public spaces as it is well aligned with some of my research areas, but also Chapter 45 The Espresso Menu: An International history for its overview of the development of the different drinks we encounter in the modern coffee shop. The book also has a very useful glossary at the back, which is excellent as a reference guide in itself. In a recent lecture I delivered on the global coffee industry, I recommended the ‘Coffee Business’ section to my students as a good overview of the different elements of the system from the plant itself, to how its traded and key threats to the industry.

Store Street Espresso Crtado (2)

In general anyone with an interest in coffee and the coffee industry is likely to find something of value in this book. Because of how it is organised, you could just read the select chapters deemed relevant, but actually read cover to cover as I ended up doing, it provided a fantastic series of vignettes across the industry, demonstrating its diversity but also interconnections between places, processes and the different parts of the industry.

 

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Researching the Coffee and Coffee Shop Industries: A Guide for A Level Geography Students and Teachers

The coffee shop industry in has experienced significant growth over the last decade with recent estimates suggesting the industry in the UK alone is worth £9 billion, with over 24,000 outlets. Coffee shops are present in places across many countries from the high streets to the suburbs. The dynamics of the industry are fascinating, not only in terms of what is happening inside the industry itself, but in terms of how it is impacts different communities.

I began with an initial idea to explore the geography of the coffee shop industry in the UK, thinking about the economic impact of coffee shops on the high street. However, this has blossomed into a wide research agenda that explores different economic, social and environmental facets of the industry on a range of geographical scales. This has led me to utilise a range of different research methods to investigate the different elements of the industry, and the people and processes that are involved in it.

Spaces of Community Report Cafe IndustryI completed a research project entitled ‘Spaces of Community: Exploring the Dynamics the Café Industry’ which explored how the industry has developed and the role of coffee shops in different urban spaces. I am now undertaking a project ‘From the Grounds up: The Coffee Shop Industry and the Circular Economy‘ which explores issues related to sustainability in the coffee shop industry. These projects have led to a range of different research avenues related to the coffee and coffee shop industries from considering the economics of the coffee shop sector, to certification and standards schemes on coffee farms. The global nature of the coffee and coffee shop industries make them ideal for geographers to explore; there are multiple areas for investigation from the local scale to the global.

Having discussed these projects and research areas with many people, I have received much interest from geographers, and in particular secondary school geography teachers, who would often talk about students keen to investigate geographical issues related to coffee shops, high streets and urban change, particularly with the development of the Independent Investigation.

I have produced a document as a response to some of these conversations with teachers who have been keen to know how I go about my research, in particular the methods that are used.

This is not a comprehensive guide to the research methods used, but highlights some of the methods, and places to find out more information about them.

This is designed to act as an introduction to a sample of methods which could be used by students to investigate urban phenomena more generally, not just about the coffee shop industry. This is available to download here.

 

  • It highlights a number of key texts that students may wish to read when designing their investigation.
  • It outlines a range of research methods I have used in my research on the coffee and coffee shop industries including: obtaining secondary data, interviews and questionnaires, focus groups, observation, archival research, using diaries, visual methods, as well as netnography and the use of social media.
  • Given the Independent Investigation has to link directly to content of A Level specifications I have highlighted in this document areas which could relate to the coffee and coffee shop industries for three awarding organisations (AQA, OCR and Pearson).

Hopefully both students and teachers may find this useful as an overview of some potential methods they may wish to consider for their geographical research in the future.

 

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Book Review: The Monk of Mokha by Dave Eggers

I have seen the Monk of Mokha by Dave Eggers mentioned in various places recently, from Caffeine Magazine (and video) to a number of coffee blogs (such as DoubleSkinnyMacchiato). Initially I assumed this was a novel, but on reading the reviews I realised this was actually based on the true events experienced by a Yemeni-American named Mokhtar Alkhanshali. I was lucky enough to receive a copy of the book for Mother’s Day and thoroughly enjoyed spending a day or so working through it, it was one of those books that you just don’t want to put down.

Monk of MokhaIt charts the story of Mokhtar in his quest to bring specialty coffee from Yemen, a country which has is so important to the history of coffee, to the rest of the world. It’s almost unbelievable the efforts that he went to along with others to reach his goals, facing challenges from logistics to civil war. I won’t go into the details because it really is a story that you need to delve into. Mokhtar became the first Arab Q grader, and undoubtedly has become an individual that has gone to extraordinary lengths for specialty coffee, and for the specialty coffee industry in Yemen in particular. You can find out more about Mokhtar and his company, the Port of Mokha, on the website.

Getting hold of the coffee in the UK seems more difficult than in the US, but hopefully with the interest his story that should accompany the book, we might see this coffee become available at some venues in the UK. There are so many fascinating stories in the coffee industry, about the people that make the drink that so many people take advantage of possible. This is one of those stories, and it’s great that it has been captured so eloquently by Dave Eggers in this volume.

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Book Review: Where to Drink Coffee by Avidan Ross and Liz Clayton

I had some time to kill before a meeting in London recently and ended up at one of my favourite coffee shops in central London, Kaffeine (I happened to be in the Great Tichfield street branch but I like the Eastcastle Street branch too). They had a copy of ‘Where to Drink Coffee’  by Avidan Ross and Liz Clayton available to read for customers so this was a perfect way to pass the time. I’d seen this book in the window a number of times at Waterstones, and Amazon kept recommending it, but I hadn’t actually found the time to go and look at it.

This book is essentially a directory of coffee shops from around the world from Austin, USA to Zagreb, Croatia. The authors have consulted coffee specialists from around the world (the list is included in the book) to put together a comprehensive atlas of places to drink coffee. Creating this kind of directory is challenging, as the authors note in the beginning section to the book, as there is quite a lot of churn in the industry, with some places closing and so didn’t make the final version of the book, and naturally places opening since. Nevertheless, if you are looking for coffee options in a place you’re less familiar with around the world, this book has plenty of suggestions.

Each location has a page with quotes from the coffee experts about that particular coffee scene and an outline map of how the different coffee shops are scattered across the city. Then each city has a list of places, understandably given my location, Kaffeine had the bookmark positioned to where they were featured, alongside Prufrock and Workshop among several other well-known London coffee shops. Each entry has the address,  quotes from the coffee experts, opening hours, payment methods accepted and coffee shop style i.e. can you get food as well as coffee. As you can see from the first photo in this blog post, you can indeed get food at Kaffeine, in this case an excellent raspberry and coconut muffin.

If you’re looking for a global guide of where is good to start exploring coffee then this volume is a good introductory guide in the sense that it includes a good range of coffee shops globally, most of them well known in the specialty coffee industry. However, as was noted by the authors, over time coffee shops come and go, and so this volume while useful as a guide book now, may become more a snapshot of global coffee shops rather than a definitive guide in the future. I have seen reviews of this book which appear disappointed at the lack of photographs, and that in the Instagram era we now live in it would have been nice to have a photography focused guide to coffee shops rather than a directory style. I tend to agree, in that it’s difficult to get a feel for a coffee shop from an address and few details. However, this was not was this book was intended to – there’s plenty of scope for more photography focused coffee shop books in the future.

Because of the style of this book, it isn’t one to pick up an read cover to cover like a lot of other non-fiction, but it is more one you might want to have on hand to refer to when considering coffee options in particular cities. From my perspective as a researcher of coffee, it’s a great resource to see what coffee shops the coffee experts think represent where you should drink coffee around the world, and that snapshot of the coffee shop industry is fascinating in itself.

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On the need to continue discussions of waste: Government responds to ‘latte levy’ proposal

In January the Environmental Audit Committee published a report as a result of an inquiry into disposable coffee cup waste. The report made a number of suggestions to address the issue of growing disposable coffee cup waste in the UK. Among these suggestions was a proposed 25p charge on disposable coffee cups which became nicknamed the ‘latte levy’. The suggestion was met with mixed response, with many concerned that this could harm independent businesses, particularly those who rely on a large takeaway customer base. The responses by United Baristas and James Hoffman in particular are worth a read to help understand some of the concerns from the specialty industry. In response to the report many coffee companies sought to highlight that they offered a discount for people using reusable coffee cups (as much as 50p in Pret, but usually around 25p in many other stores). Starbucks, in partnership with Hubbub, introduced a trial 5p cup charge for some of its London stores, in an effort to try and understand how people can be encouraged to use reusable cups. As I have highlighted in previous posts, the switch to reusable coffee cups for many consumers feels more problematic than the switch to reusable carrier bags (due to issues of the size of the cup, carrying a dirty cup around, having to wash it etc).

Vanilla latte costa

The government has responded to the report arguing that there will not be a ‘latte levy’ introduced, as it is more appropriate for coffee shops to offer discount to encourage reusable cup use instead.

“The Government has refused to take any decisive action on the complex issue of coffee cups – including the introduction of a ‘latte levy’ – and has instead chosen to rely on voluntary commitments.” (Parliament, 2018)

The Environmental Audit Committee appears disappointed at this response, arguing that it suggests the government is not taking the issues of litter and disposable materials seriously enough, and that it has no real plan of action in this area. The Committee’s report suggested that charges were more effective for changing the situation for the use of coffee cups (in particular citing evidence from the introduction of the plastic carrier bag charge in the UK), rather than discount in stores, and feels this evidence has been ignored.

“Evidence to our inquiry demonstrated that charges work better than discounts for reducing the use of non-recyclable materials – as was the case with the plastic bag charge. By choosing to favour voluntary discounts for reusable cups, the Government is ignoring the evidence about what works”. (Parliament 2018)

Part of the governments justification for its response is that the coffee cups make up less than 1% of total paper packaging waste in the UK, and therefore it should be considering ways to address the packaging and waste management systems more generally.

One of the key points in the Committee report was around consumer confusion about which materials could be recycled, and argued for clearer labelling of coffee cups to help address this. The government response has focused more on anti-litter labelling instead which the leader of the Committee, Mary Creagh, argues misses the point:

“Evidence shows that while 90% of people put their coffee cup in recycling bins, only 0.25% are recycled due to inadequate binfrastructure. The Government’s anti-littering labelling proposal completely misses the point. Consumers deserve to know if their coffee cup will be recycled or not. The Government’s response to my Committee’s recommendation not only lacks ambition, and puts coffee in the ‘too difficult’ Ministerial in-tray”. (Parliament, 2018)

The Committee report also highlighted how there should be some element of producer responsibility in the disposable cup issue, suggesting that there should be more action from packaging companies, and the possibility of a fee on cups produced that are difficult to recycle. While the government has acknowledged that there needs to be some sort of reform in this area, there has been no set of actions outlined.

Finally the Committee report suggested that there should be a target date of 2023 for disposable cups to be banned, if efforts to make them all recyclable were not successful enough. The government has dismissed this suggested deadline arguing ‘100% recycling from collection is unobtainable’, but has acknowledged that there should be ‘challenging, but realistic’ recycling targets.

The government response generally suggests that it intends to take little action in this area, instead pointing to its wider 25 Year Environment Plan that was published in January 2018 and noting that some of the issues raised by the committee will be considered as part of an upcoming Resources and Waste Strategy. For many who were concerned about the potential introduction of a ‘latte levy’ the response from government is likely to be warmly received. However, the scale of the issue still remains, millions of coffee cups are thrown away in the UK every day – a situation that is unsustainable. While some companies have introduced discounts for reusable cups, and many people went out to buy a reusable coffee cup, it is important that the momentum to discuss issues around waste in the coffee shop industry is maintained and that it continues to be addressed. As I have highlighted before, it will take a large shift in behaviour change from consumers (as well as businesses) to change practices surrounding the use of disposable coffee cups, and even though the government may not be introducing charges to incentivise people to change their behaviour, it doesn’t mean that the system cannot be changed by those involved in it. I’ve been encouraged recently by the greater presence of reusable coffee cups on the high street, and in general the visibility of discussions around waste in the coffee shop industry, it would be a shame if in light of the government’s response if this was to disappear.

Ecoffee Cup London Coffee Festival

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